First Aid


Knowing how to treat  injuries is crucial in an emergency. 

                                 Knowing how to avoid emergencies is just as crucial.






More injuries occur because people do not know their limits or disregard that knowledge in the pursuit of fun and adventure. Fun and adventure is what life is all about, anyone who thinks differently is missing the point. Getting hurt or killed is not the point. The only thing worse than getting hurt or killed is seeing someone else get hurt or killed. Do you know your limits? Do you know your partners' limits? Do you even care? Would you know what to do in an emergency? Next time you head out for a fun weekend in the woods don't forget the ten essentials and, most of all, don't forget your brain.


The human body is mostly water. Alright, I admit we are made up of  bone, hair, teeth, and claws. Most of the body is gooey stuff. GOOEY STUFF=WATER. Do you drink enough water? Probably not.The body(which houses the brain) requires huge amounts of water to function correctly. In the back country clean drinking water can be a problem , but many water treatment obtions exist.


Hydration Requirements: average of 2 liters a day!

Normal H2O loss per day:   minimum                    hot day                     heavy exercise

    Skin=                                                 350 ml.                     350ml.                                     350ml.

    Respiration=                                      350 ml.                     250ml.                                     650ml.

    Sweating=                                           100 ml.                   1400ml.                                  5000ml.

    Urination=                                        1400ml.                   1200ml.                                     500ml.

    Defecation=                                       100ml.                     100ml.                                     100ml.


 TOTALS                                             2300ml.                3300ml.                                  6600ml. 


H2O requirements will vary based on activity, climate, and altitude. Sweat loss from heavy exertion can be deadly! 1-3 liters per hour loss for up to 4 hours can result in a 10% weight loss and death! At a higher altitude where the low pressure is present, you can lose 1 cup of water an hour just from breathing! That is 24 cups in 24 hours or approximately 6 liters of water a day.

When you get dehydrated your brain slows down, your reaction time slows down, and your judgement becomes impaired. You may not even know you are dehydrated, but you may just feel BLAH! (Not a real medical term.) and a litttle thirsty. The problem is by the time you feel thirsty  you are already dehydrated.This is when you twist your ankle and fall! You are 5 miles from the car, night is coming and now you are in trouble!

A sprained ankle is the obvious problem, not as obvious as an angulated fracture but obvious just the same. The first thing you need to do is realize that no one in the history of mankind has ever died from a sprained ankle, no matter how painful it is. However, lots of people have died from exposure to the weather. Nearly all wilderness deaths are the result of exposure, no matter what the underlying injury may be. Are you prepared for the cold night? Does somebody know your itinerary? You have a cell for but coverage is poor at best in the back country. Are you fortunate enough to have purchased or rented a Personal Locator beacon? Do you really want to activate it and scramble valuable rescue resources for a sprained ankle and mild dehydration? Are you equiped enough and mentally prepared to spend the night in the cold wilderness with bugs, wild animals, and possibly monsters?(More on monsters later.)



 Hypothermia is the leading cause of wilderness deaths. Many factors contribute to getting hypothermia but very few of them actually cause death.(No one dies from a sprained ankle) Hypothermia is defined as the lowering of the body's core tempature to a level where normal brain and muscle functions become impaired.